page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132
page 133
page 134
page 135
page 136
page 137
page 138
page 139
page 140
page 141
page 142
page 143
page 144
page 145
page 146
page 147
page 148
page 149
page 150
page 151
page 152
page 153
page 154
page 155
page 156
page 157
page 158
page 159
page 160
page 161
page 162
page 163
page 164
page 165
page 166
page 167
page 168
page 169
page 170
page 171
page 172
page 173
page 174
page 175
page 176
page 177
page 178
page 179
page 180
page 181
page 182
page 183
page 184
page 185
page 186
page 187
page 188
page 189
page 190
page 191
page 192
page 193
page 194
page 195
page 196
page 197
page 198
page 199
page 200
page 201
page 202
page 203
page 204
page 205
page 206
page 207
page 208
page 209
page 210
page 211
page 212
page 213
page 214
page 215
page 216
page 217
page 218
page 219
page 220
page 221
page 222
page 223
page 224
page 225
page 226
page 227
page 228
page 229
page 230
page 231
page 232
page 233
page 234
page 235
page 236
page 237
page 238
page 239
page 240
page 241
page 242
page 243
page 244
page 245
page 246
page 247
page 248
page 249
page 250
page 251
page 252
page 253
page 254
page 255
page 256
page 257
page 258
page 259
page 260
page 261
page 262
page 263
page 264
page 265
page 266
page 267
page 268
page 269
page 270
page 271
page 272
page 273
page 274
page 275
page 276
page 277
page 278
page 279
page 280
page 281
page 282
page 283
page 284
page 285
page 286
page 287
page 288
page 289
page 290
page 291
page 292

The Cantabrian Mountains run alongthe north coast of Spain for about 300kilometres. The Picos de Europa lie inthe centre of this range, a dramatic blockof jagged limestone peaks, amongst themTorre de Cerrado, at 2,648 metres, thehighest mountain in northern Spain. Theselittle-known mountains remain an area ofwild natural beauty, rich in bird andplant-life and with many species ofbutterflies, including the ScarceSwallowtail, Apollo, Camberwell Beauty,Gavarnie Blue, and many differentfritillaries, blues and ringlets. Thewhiteness of the limestone is a specialfeature of an area comprised of deepgorges, towering white cliffs andpinnacles, woods and alpine pastures.This holiday is in some ways similar informat to our popular holidays in theFrench and Spanish Pyrenees, but with acharacter all of its own. It is a 2-centreholiday, and we will be based in two verydifferent hotels, one in the small village ofCabrales in the northern Picos, the other inthe delightfully unspoilt and attractivevillage of Espinama, in the southern Picos.Each village is surrounded by meadowsand mountains, a base from which toexplore the countryside, either on foot orby taking our minibus further afield. Apicnic is provided each day giving you achance to sample some of the excellentwines and cheeses from the Picos region!By travelling slightly later in the summer,we will see all those lovely plants we missin the Pyrenees: the English Iris, BrownFoxglove, Yellow Wolfsbane and LizardOrchid being just some of them. Ourexcursions will start along gentle valleyroutes, using ancient tracks trodden byshepherds and woodcutters. Often theyare lined with crumbling stone walls filledwith ferns. We will progress to fabulousmountain views, but the pace of our walkswill allow us plenty of time to enjoy thenatural history of the many habitatsthrough which we pass.The highlight for alpine plant lovers is thetop of the Fuente Dé, reached bycable car. This will take us up 800metres, to a wild area oflimestone scree and pavement.From the top, we will walktowards the Refugio de Aliva.Here, amongst crevices, wemay see Narcissusasturiensis, the showy yellowSaxifraga aretioides,gentians, Teucriumpyrenaicum, Aquilegia discolorand many others including thebeautiful white buttercup,Ranunculus amplexicaulis.ThebirdsofthehighPicosarenolessspectacular. Griffon and Egyptian Vulturesare particularly common, whilst Bootedand Short-toed Eagles soar above thepeaks together with Buzzards,Sparrowhawks, and occasionally HenHarriers. Amongst the high crags it ispossible to see Crag Martins, AlpineAccentors, Snow Finches, Rock Thrushesand, with luck, the elusive Wallcreeper. Wewill also see raptors in the gorges runningthrough the mountains.A delightful valley walk leads to theRefugio de Aliva. En route we pass oldfarm buildings in flower-filled meadows,and on the rocky outcrops we will look forSempervivum cantabricum,Petrocoptisglaucifolia and the Yellow Snapdragon(Antirrhinum braun-blanquetii).The Picos region supports manyinteresting orchids. Along meadows andpathways we may see Ophrys speciessuch as Bee, Insect, Woodcock andSawfly, and also the Man and occasionalTongue Orchid. In damp meadows andalong stream sides there will be a riot ofMarsh Orchids, and perhaps the rareRobust Orchid. The beautiful blueEryngium bourgatii and Dianthusmonspessulanus (the Fringed Pink) andLinum viscosum (Sticky Flax) are common companions for the waysideorchids. We will also explore theheathlands for the beautiful and interestingDaboecia cantabrica (St Daboec's Heath).Extensive mixed woodlands still exist,some of them dominated by the PyreneanOak. We will also visit the beechwoods inthe Andara, a known habitat forCapercaillie and Black Woodpeckers.Other woodland birds may include SpottedFlycatcher, Short-toed Treecreeper,Firecrest and Bonelli's Warbler.On the high mountain slopes we will hopeto see Chamois and, although we areunlikely to see one, we must nonethelesskeep our eyes open for Wolf and BrownBear, which still retain a foothold in thesemountains. The Snow Vole is the smallestmammal we may see, and after rain, theyellow and black Fire Salamanders might appear.This region, fortunately still somewhat lost in time, holds something of interest for everyone. The flowers, butterflies andbirds are outstanding ... and the scenery is exceptional. Canal del TejoEgyptian VultureBee Orchid135Outline itineraryDay 1Fly Santander andtransfer to Cabrales. Day 2/4 Cabrales, northernPicos. Day 5/7Espinama, southernPicos.Day 8 Fly London.AccommodationTwo small, simple but comfortable,mountain hotels, both with privatefacilities. Food and wineAll included in the price.GradingDay walks only. Grade B.FocusBirds, plants and butterflies.LeadersLee Morgan (ornithologist) andAndrew Cleave (botanist).Single room supplement£140. Web quick search: ESP12FRANCEPORTUGALSEVILLEBILBAOSANTANDERPICOSDEEUROPACABRALESESPINAMAMADRIDATLANTICOCEANMEDITERRANEANSEASPAINBook direct on 01962 733051or see page 284 for Booking InformationSpain's Picos de Europa MountainsAn 8-day holiday of birdwatching and botanical walks in the Picos de Europa mountains.Sunday 9th June - Sunday 16th June Cost: £1,195

The Brown Bear is a rare andendangered species in Spain today.Just 130 animals remain, splitbetween two isolated populations at eitherend of the Cordillera Cantábrica. Here theydwell in the wildest regions, high in thesteepest and most wooded parts of thisspectacular - but little-visited - mountainrange. The majority of the Bears, about100, are to be found in the westernpopulation, 20 of them in the deep valleysand rugged terrain of Somiedo NaturalPark. Established as recently as 1988 (anddeclared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCOin 2000), this 29,164-hectare park protectssome of the highest and most scenicpeaks and valleys of the region; a mostpleasant mix of dramatic and craggylimestone peaks and cliffs, upland lakes,fast-flowing streams and rivers, magnificent oak and Beech forests,ancient stone-walled upland pastures andhigh alpine meadows, regarded as thebest-preserved montane environment inthe Iberian peninsula. In particular, this richand varied tapestry of habitats not onlysuits the omnivorous Bear, but alsosupports a very large population ofChamois, Roe Deer and Red Deer, theprey of at least four packs of Wolves thatroam elusively through the rugged regionsof the park. We would, of course, beextremely lucky to see a Bear or a Wolf,but we will look hard for them nonethelessas we pursue our main focus - theregion's birdlife, flora, butterflies and othermammals - during our daily walks inthese mountains. It is the human presence, however, thatmakes this region so very special. As if thewonderful Asturian architecture of thestone and clay-tiled villages of Somiedo'svalleys - each dwelling with its separate,classically Asturian, stilted storehouse -were not enough, here the residentfarmers continue to practise an age-oldpastoralist lifestyle, maintaining theirtraditional and unique brañas. These areseasonal 'villages' of ancient stone andthatch huts, set in the high pastures, fromwhich the cow-herders manage their herdsof distinctive red Asturian cows eachspring, summer and autumn. The region is also the land of the vaqueiros, acommunity of pastoralists from the coastwho, for centuries, have seasonally driven (more often in a truck these daysthan on foot, as in the past!) their cattlebetween winter pastures on the coast and the high pastures in Somiedo'smountains where they spend each summerliving in traditional seasonal vaqueirovillages and hold colourful bi-annuallivestock fairs. We have chosen to visit in early July sincethis is the season during which the Bearsventure out into the pastures to 'graze' onthe spring grass before they retreat intothe forests to feed on fruit, nuts and otherforest produce. It is also, of course, thebest time of year for settled weather, birdsand for flowers. Amongst the birds, animportant though declining population ofCapercaillie is protected here. Residentbirds of prey include Golden Eagle,Goshawk, Peregrine and Griffon Vultureand these are joined in summer by goodnumbers of Black Kites, Short-toed Eagles,Honey Buzzards and Egyptian Vultures.Crag Martins, Rock Thrushes, Rock andOrtolan Buntings, and both Red-billed andAlpine Choughs frequent the highmeadows. Red-backed Shrikes, Subalpineand Melodious Warblers, Cirl Buntings andRock Sparrows may be found at lowerlevels, whilst Black Woodpeckers call fromthe beech forests and Crested Tits andCrossbills may be heard amongst theconiferous woodlands.Some 1,125 vascular plant species occurin Somiedo, and these include suchregional endemics as Centaurea janerisubsp. babiana,Armeria bigerrensissubsp. legionensis,Saxifraga babianaand,most notably, the very rare SomiedoCentaury (Centaurium somedanum).However, it is likely to be the sheerabundance of flowers along the waysideand in the hay meadows and alpinepastures, and the butterfly and insect-life itsupports, that affords us greatest pleasureat this season.To best enjoy the natural history of thesemountains, we will be based for the weekin one of the larger villages of Somiedoand will spend each day on foot, enjoyinga programme of gentle-paced day walkswhich we traditionally break with adelicious 'al fresco' picnic. In order tostand a chance of seeing a Bear, however,or even a Wolf, we must also put in long(but optional) hours of patient scanningfrom one spot, probably during the earlymornings and late evenings. But, whateverwe see on this holiday, it is the simplemagic of this rich, scenic and timelessregion, lying in a forgotten corner of ruralSpain, that is likely to leave us with ourmost lasting and delightful memories.FRANCE PORTUGAL SEVILLE BILBAOASTURIASCANTABRIAN MOUNTAINSSOMIEDOZAMORA MADRID ATLANTIC OCEAN MEDITERRANEAN SEA SPAIN136Call now or visit www.naturetrek.co.ukfor your free Trip ItineraryOutline itineraryDay 1Fly Asturias and transferto Somiedo NaturalPark. Day 2/7Day walks in theCantabrian Mountains ofthe Somiedo region.Day 8Return Asturias; flyStansted.Accommodation A single-centre holiday using aclean and comfortable village hotel,all rooms with private facilities. Food All included in the price.GradingGrade B. A programme of daywalks, at altitudes between 1,000and 2,000 metres.Focus Birds, plants, mammals, butterfliesand walking - with an optionalemphasis on Bear-spotting! LeadersByron Palacios (ornithologist) andGloria Lana or Jessica Turner(botanist).Single room supplement£150.Web quick search: ESP10Spain's CantabrianMountains - Realm of the BearAn 8-day holiday to the little-known western end of Spain's Cordillera Cantábrica, home to Bears, Wolves and a rich flora and birdlife. We will enjoy this wildlife on mountain walks through the spectacular Somiedo Natural Park.Monday 1st July - Monday 8th July Cost: £1,195Cordillera CantábricaGriffonVultureElderflower Orchid