page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132
page 133
page 134
page 135
page 136
page 137
page 138
page 139
page 140
page 141
page 142
page 143
page 144
page 145
page 146
page 147
page 148
page 149
page 150
page 151
page 152
page 153
page 154
page 155
page 156
page 157
page 158
page 159
page 160
page 161
page 162
page 163
page 164
page 165
page 166
page 167
page 168
page 169
page 170
page 171
page 172
page 173
page 174
page 175
page 176
page 177
page 178
page 179
page 180
page 181
page 182
page 183
page 184
page 185
page 186
page 187
page 188
page 189
page 190
page 191
page 192
page 193
page 194
page 195
page 196
page 197
page 198
page 199
page 200
page 201
page 202
page 203
page 204
page 205
page 206
page 207
page 208
page 209
page 210
page 211
page 212
page 213
page 214
page 215
page 216
page 217
page 218
page 219
page 220
page 221
page 222
page 223
page 224
page 225
page 226
page 227
page 228
page 229
page 230
page 231
page 232
page 233
page 234
page 235
page 236
page 237
page 238
page 239
page 240
page 241
page 242
page 243
page 244
page 245
page 246
page 247
page 248
page 249
page 250
page 251
page 252
page 253
page 254
page 255
page 256
page 257
page 258
page 259
page 260
page 261
page 262
page 263
page 264
page 265
page 266
page 267
page 268
page 269
page 270
page 271
page 272
page 273
page 274
page 275
page 276
page 277
page 278
page 279
page 280
page 281
page 282
page 283
page 284
page 285
page 286
page 287
page 288
page 289
page 290
page 291
page 292

Lying in the central Mediterranean Sea,separated from the toe of Italy to theeast by the Straits of Messina, fromSardinia to the north by the Tyrrhenian Sea,and from the continent of Africa to thesouth by the Straits of Sicily, the island ofSicily basks in a warm, mainly dry climate.The history of the island can be traced asfar back as 13,000 BC when, as legendhas it, the land was inhabited by a race ofpowerful and invincible giants, descendedfrom Zeus. Their continued tenancy,however, was short-lived as they chose tochallenge the authority of the Gods andwere banished, in chains, to theunderworld below the island's volcanoes tofashion weapons, such as thunderbolts, forthe Gods. To this day they struggle andmoan to free themselves from the immenseweight of the mountains, causing eruptionswhen they stir. Next, between the 13th and11th centuries BC, the Elymian, Sical andSican peoples colonised the island, givingit its name. By the third century BC, Sicilyhad become the first province of Rome, itsfertile soil earning it the title of 'Granary ofthe Empire'.It is this fertile soil that we hope to benefitfrom in our search for the wild flowers ofthis beautiful island. During our stay, we willbe visiting two specific areas - first, theslopes of Mount Etna from our base inZafferana, on the eastern side of themountain, and then the beautiful MadonieMountains which rise steeply from thenorthern coast. Our 2-centre holiday willbegin with a flight to Catania, lying inMount Etna's shadow in the east of theisland, and as our aeroplane banks, wemay catch our first sight of Etna, Europe's highest and most active volcano. Thissmouldering giant has been a menacingneighbour for the Sicilians ever since itsfirst recorded eruption in 450 BC. Therehave been around 260 subsequenteruptions of varying intensity, which are stilloccurring to the present day.Etna's inhospitable summit stands at about3,300 metres above sea level and, with adiameter of 44 kilometres and an area of1,600 square kilometres, she has a trulymassive presence. There are a number ofinteresting botanical locations on thesouthern, western and eastern slopes andour plan will be to explore the variousstages of the lava's colonisation whilstbased in Zafferana, a quaint, church-filledmarket town set high on the eastern slopesof Mount Etna. We will visit the PianoProvenzana, where we should see SicilianMilkvetch (Astragalus sicula), Sword-leavedHelleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia) andthe endemic Etna Violet (Viola aetnensis),and the Piano dell'Acqua, site of the1991/1993 eruptions. Nebrod CarlineThistle (Carlina nebrodensis), EtnaGreenweed (Genista aetnensis) and theviolet, Viola bertoloniissp. messanensis,should all be encountered here. We willalso find time to ascend the path to MountZoccolaro and the surrounding woodlandwhere, hopefully, we will see the endemicbirch (Betula aetnensis). Later, we will focus on the volcano itself,driving up to the Rifugio Sapienza, site ofthe cable car station. The cable car pylonswere destroyed when they were engulfedby lava recently; however, there are 4-wheel drive excursions up to within 400 metres or so of the summit, and afascinating day is in prospect as our localguides explain the geology and eruptionhistory of the volcano. In the afternoon wewill be free to visit the Crateri Silvestri andsome of the adjacent lava and ash fields.Then, descending the south-westernslopes via Nicolosi, we will admire the extent of the most recent lava flowsand may also see the Etna Broom (Genista aetnensis). Our transfer west to the pretty mountainvillage of Isnello in the Madonie Mountains, our base for the next fournights, will herald a dramatic change ofscenery as we leave behind the igneousrocks of Etna and enter a dramaticlandscape of Dolomitic limestone. Duringour stay here we will visit the mountainmeadows at Portella Mandarini, where weshould see Man Orchid (Acerasanthropophorum), Barbary Nut (Gynandririssisyrinchium), Pink Butterfly Orchid (Orchispapilionacea) and Bastard Balm (Melittismelissophyllum). We will walk up to MonteQuacella and the Madonna degli AngeliValley, the home of the endemic andextremely rare Nebrod Pine (Abiesnebrodensis), and we will also explore themontane woodland in search of suchspecies as Lizard Orchid (Himantoglossumhircinum) and the wild peony, Paeoniamascula, which in these mountains tends to be white. This should be a memorable week, inwhich we will not only be able to enjoymany of Sicily's special plants but will alsogain a fascinating insight into the geologyand history of this intriguing island.Wild Flowers of SicilyAn 8-day appreciation of the wild flowers of Sicily's Mount Etna and the Madonie Mountains.Sunday 5th May - Sunday 12th May Cost: £1,295 Outline itineraryDay 1Fly Catania; transferZafferana.Day 2/3Zafferana, Mount Etnaregion.Day 4/7Isnello, the MadonieMountains.Day 8Fly London.AccommodationTwo pleasant and traditional hotelsserving fine local food, both withprivate facilities.Food and excursionsAll included in the price. Grading Grade A/B. Easy walks only.FocusPrimarily wild flowers.Leader Paul Harmes or Jessica Turner.Single room supplement £160.Web quick search: ITA10120Call now or visit your free Trip ItinerarySICILYMEDITERRANEANSEATYRRHENIANSEACATANIAISNELLOPALERMOCEFALUZAFFERANAMT. ETNAMount EtnaSawfly Orchid

Book direct on 01962 733051or see page 284 for Booking Information121The Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus), themost endangered of the world's 36cat species, stands on the brink ofextinction. Just a century ago, it rangedthroughout over half of the Iberianpeninsula. As recently as 1996 it stilloccurred in nearly a quarter of the region.Today, its range has shrunk dramatically tojust two viable (but isolated) populationswithin Andalucía, and its population isestimated to be fewer than 250 adultindividuals. A number of factors havecombined to decimate the population ofthis delightful cat. First came myxomatosis,which devastated Iberia's Rabbit numbersand deprived the Iberian Lynx of its chiefprey species - 90% of its diet! As if thatwas not enough, a second disease - viralhemorrhagic pneumonia - hit the region'ssurviving Rabbits. Habitat destruction andfragmentation has been a contributingfactor, but worse, Spain's entry into the EUand its astonishingly rapid transformationfrom simple rural economy to a highlydeveloped and urbanised one has seen asurge in road construction andconsequential traffic (and road-kills) thathave wreaked havoc on Lynx communities. In the rugged, dry and rocky hills andmountains of the Sierra Morena some ofthe best preserved Mediterranean forest inthe Iberian peninsula is to be found.Primarily this is open and spacious oakforest, comprised of Holm, Gall and CorkOak, though alder, ash and poplars are tobe found at the margins of rivers, gladesand meadows. In this quiet and relativelyunpopulated region, Spain's wild animalsthrive. As well as Iberian Lynx, Wolves,Otters, Wild Boar, Mouflon and Red Deerare all to be found. These mountains alsohold a large population of Griffon Vultures,as well as good numbers of the rare BlackVulture and Spanish Imperial Eagle.Amongst the oak forest that clads thesehills are grassy glades and secludedvalleys where the Lynx hunt Rabbits, restamongst the rocks, and raise their youngin ancient, hollowed oaks. Here live themajority (perhaps 70% or more) of theworld's remaining Iberian Lynx. Perhapshere, in a refuge from the modern world,the Iberian Lynx has a chance of survival. The remaining 20-30% of the Iberian Lynxpopulation lives in and around the CotoDoñana, a quite different environment offlat grasslands and pine forests where just a few individual oak trees or remnantpatches of Mediterranean oak forest are to be found. This is an area besieged bythe marching tide of Spain's EU-fundedagricultural revolution . and a noose of roads that grows ever tighter as Seville and its suburbs expand. On this tour we will spend all of our timeenjoying the mammals and birds withinthese two, quite different, Iberian Lynxhabitats. Past experience suggests that,on average, Naturetrek groups have beenrewarded with a Lynx sighting for every 30to 40 hours spent within Lynx habitat. Wetherefore have a realistic chance of seeingthis rare animal on this holiday, but wemust look upon a sighting as a bonus toour enjoyment of the other wildlife of theseareas, rather than a sole aim in itself.We begin in El Rocío, a delightful andelegant village that overlooks the lagoon,river and marshlands that lie within theCoto Doñana National Park, one of thefinest wetlands in Europe. With its white-washed buildings (that include amagnificent church) and its unmetalledsandy streets, there is something of theAmerican Wild West about this village! Italso makes a fine base for our 2-night stayin the region, from where we will head outbefore dawn, and again in the afternoon,to ensure that we are in the best places forLynx at the best times of day. Exploringthe mosaic of marshes, Stone Pinewoodland, and open grassland andheathland, we are likely to encounter Redand Fallow Deer, Hares and Rabbits,potentially all to be found on the menu ofthe Lynx. We will also enjoy the hugenumbers of birds of prey that pass throughthe park, together with numerous othermigrants, amongst them storks, herons,waders, ducks, gulls and terns. We willlook, too, for some of the region'sspecialities, amongst them PurpleGallinule, Marbled Teal, Crested Coot, therare Spanish Imperial Eagle (seven pairsof which breed here) and Red-neckedNightjar.We will then transfer to the hills,completing our holiday with a 3-night stayin the Sierra Morena where we will spendmuch of our time moving between scenicviewpoints. From each one we will be ableto scan vast tracts of Lynx habitat. Unlikein the Coto Doñana, sightings of Lynx andother animals here are often at long range,but the scenery is tremendous, and thebirdlife very rich, with Azure-wingedMagpies and Hawfinches particularlyabundant. Iberian LynxOutline itineraryDay 1Fly Seville and transferto the Coto Doñana. Day 2Coto Doñana.Day 3/5Sierra Morena.Day 6Return Seville; flyLondon.Accommodation A 2-centre holiday using clean andcomfortable village hotels, allrooms with private facilities. Food All included in the price.GradingGrade A. Some easy walks, butmuch of our tour will be spentwatching from viewpoints. Focus The plight of the Iberian Lynx,together with the rich variety ofboth birds and other mammalswhich share its realm. N.B. As well as being bothendangered and elusive, IberianLynx are mainly nocturnal. Anysighting must be considered abonus; it cannot be guaranteed!LeaderDavid Morris, Byron Palacios orJames Lees.Single room supplement£140.Web quick search: ESP08FRANCEPORTUGALTRUJILLOSEVILLESIERRAMORENAMÁLAGAEL ROCÍO,COTO DOÑANAGUADALQUIVIRRIVERMADRIDATLANTICOCEANMEDITERRANEAN SEASPAINSpain - Realm of the Iberian LynxA 6-day holiday to the lesser-known corners of the Coto Doñana and the rugged regions of the Sierra Morena, together the last refuge of the critically endangered Iberian Lynx, and home to a wealth of other mammals and birds.Thursday 20th September - Tuesday 25th September 2012 Cost: £995Monday 3rd December - Saturday 8th December 2012 Cost: £995Wednesday 30th January - Monday 4th February 2013 Cost: £995Monday 2nd December - Saturday 7th December 2013 Cost: £995Sierra MorenaSpanish Imperial Eagle